Ethanol (Total 221089 Papers Found)

The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme is a large-scale initiative that aims to greatly increase the availability of NICE recommended psychological treatment for depression and anxiety disorders within the National Health Service in England. This article describes the background to the programme, the arguments on which it is based, the therapist training scheme, the clinical service model, and a summary of progress to date. At mid-point in a national roll-out of the pro ...
Rat liver was homogenized in isotonic buffer, fractionated by differential centrifugation, and then subfractionated by equilibrium sedimentation in Nycodenz gradients. Fractions were assayed for both Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn-SOD by exploiting the cyanide sensitivity of the former activity and by the use of specific antibodies. As expected, the cytosol and lysosomal fractions contained Cu,Zn-SOD; while the mitochondrial matrix contained Mn-SOD. In mitochondria, Cu,Zn-SOD was found ...
OBJECTIVE --To determine, in a multivariate analysis, risk factors for preeclampsia that could be observed early in pregnancy and to establish whether these risk factors are different for nulliparas and multiparas. DESIGN --A case-control study of preeclampsia. SETTING --Women who gave birth at Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers in 1984 and 1985. PARTICIPANTS --Preeclamptic cases (n = 139) were determined from discharge diagnosis of severe preeclampsia and by confirmatio ...
The reduction of acyl-CoA or acyl-ACP to fatty alcohol occurs via a fatty aldehyde intermediate. In prokaryotes this reaction is thought to be performed by separate enzymes for each reduction step while in eukaryotes these reactions are performed by a single enzyme without the release of the intermediate fatty aldehyde. However, here we report that a purified fatty acyl reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, evolutionarily related to the fatty acyl reductases in eukaryotes, catalysed both re ...
Recently, we demonstrated that the central ghrelin signalling system, involving the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A), is important for alcohol reinforcement. Ghrelin targets a key mesolimbic circuit involved in natural as well as drug-induced reinforcement, that includes a dopamine projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to suppress ghrelin's effects on this mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway can be su ...
Lymphoma patients often exhibit abnormal lipid metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that a decrease in circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may occur during lymphomagenesis, reflecting underlying etiology such as inflammation. We investigated the relationship between prediagnostic HDL-C and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. At baseline, serum HDL-C and total cholesterol concentrations from fasting blood, ...
  • Linda Patia Spear, Elena I. Varlinskaya,
  • Recent developments in alcoholism : an official publication of the American Medical Society on Alcoholism, the Research Society on Alcoholism, and the National Council on Alcoholism
  • 2005
Research conducted in laboratory animals has shown adolescents to be less sensitive to numerous ethanol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake, including effects evident during intoxication (e.g., ethanol-induced motor impairment, anxiolysis, social impairment, and sedation), as well as during the post-intoxication period (e.g., "hangover"-associated anxiogenesis). Conversely, adolescents are more sensitive than adults to a few ethanol effects, including ethanol-induced social facilitati ...
BACKGROUND Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990 s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. METHODS The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investiga ...
From 1985 to 1991, 648 cases of assault-related penetrating ocular injury were reported to the National Eye Trauma System Registry. We examined the circumstances surrounding and initial clinical findings related to this case series of injuries. Eighty-three percent of the patients were male. The median age was 28 years; 77% were younger than age 40 years, and 17% were younger than age 20 years. The ocular injury was part of multiple trauma in 34% of cases. There was evidence of alcohol and illic ...
We conducted a controlled, blinded, multicenter study of disulfiram treatment of alcoholism in 605 men randomly assigned to 250 mg of disulfiram (202 men); 1 mg of disulfiram (204 men), a control for the threat of the disulfiram-ethanol reaction; or no disulfiram (199 men), a control for the counseling that all received. Bimonthly treatment assessments were done for one year. Relative/friend interviews and blood and urine ethanol analyses were used to corroborate patients' reports. There were no ...
BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol consumption has been associated with enhanced susceptibility to both systemic and mucosal infections. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this enhanced susceptibility remain incompletely understood. METHODS Using a nonhuman primate model of ethanol (EtOH) self-administration, we examined the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on immune homeostasis, cytokine, and growth factor production in peripheral blood, lung, and intestinal mucosa following 12 months of chro ...
Roots of all plants examined so far have the potential for both ethanol and lactate fermentation. A short burst of lactate fermentation usually occurs when plant tissues are transferred from normoxic to anoxic conditions. According to the Davies-Roberts hypothesis, the consequent pH drop both initiates ethanol fermentation and blocks further production of lactate by inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, the role of LDH in this pH control mechanism is still a matter of debate. To pertu ...
Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F. tularensis migrating on Western blot as a diffuse band between 100 kDa and 250 kDa. The capsule stains poorly on SDS-PAGE with silver stain but can be ...
For several years, it has been well accepted that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plays a critical role in peripubertal growth. Recently, we have provided evidence to suggest that this peptide may also be involved in the sexual maturation process, via an action to stimulate hypothalamic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone release. Because ethanol (ETOH) delays puberty, an event that is associated with depressed growth rates and decreased growth hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH) secreti ...
Several cross-sectional studies have found cognitive impairment in subjects taking benzodiazepines for long periods. However, it is not known whether long-term use of benzodiazepines accelerates cognitive decline in the elderly. The authors addressed this issue in a follow-up study of 1,389 people aged 60 to 70 years recruited from the electoral rolls of the city of Nantes (Epidemiology of Vascular Aging study). Data on cognitive functioning (five cognitive tests), depressive symptoms (Center fo ...
This article examines differential demographic and personality characteristics of completers (n = 88) and dropouts (n = 68) from a spouse abuse abatement counseling program. Chi-square analyses on categorical data and multivariate analyses of variance on personality test data revealed several predicted findings. In general, treatment dropouts were younger and had lower employment levels than treatment completers. Dropouts also had higher pretreatment levels of police contact than completers for ...
This essay synthesizes the research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in American Indian and/or Alaska Native communities using a social ecological framework. The review of literature demonstrates that American Indian and/or Alaska Native women are at an elevated risk for IPV compared to non-American Indian women and thus this essay describes multi-level interventions that are culturally appropriate for American Indian and/or Alaska Native communities. The interventions address a variety of det ...
BACKGROUND Established clinical guidelines identify current alcohol abuse and dependence as contraindications for weight loss surgery. However, guidance on how to best assess alcohol use in bariatric patients has not been elucidated. Furthermore, concerns with postoperative alcohol use/abuse and increased sensitivity warrant the development of recommendations on appropriate interventions for patients pursuing weight loss surgery. Our objective was to review the current data on bariatric surgery ...
Human erythropoietin, derived from urine of patients with aplastic anemia, has been purified to apparent homogeneity. The seven-step procedure, which included ion exchange chromatography, ethanol precipitation, gel filtration, and adsorption chromatography, yielded a preparation with a potency of 70,400 units/mg of protein in 21% yield. This represents a purification factor of 930. The purified hormone has a single electrophoretic component in polyacrylamide gels at pH 9, in the presence of sodi ...
BACKGROUND Esophageal cancer is the 7th most common cancer in Iran. The northern part of the country shows the highest incidence for this malignancy. In this study we present some epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with esophageal carcinoma in this region. METHODS In a cross sectional study, 238 Esophageal cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective study of neoadjuvant chemo-radiation treatment in a 4-year period (2006- 2009). In an oncology clinic their ep ...
Binge drinking (i.e. consuming half the recommended weekly consumption of alcohol in a single session) is a common activity among young people. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as its theoretical framework, this paper reports a study exploring the motivational and attitudinal factors underlying binge drinking in a sample of undergraduate students. Questionnaires were completed by 136 undergraduates which focused on their drinking behaviour and their beliefs about binge drinking. Binge drink ...
The aim of this study was to find out what is the prevalence of pathological in Romanian teenagers. We questioned one thousand thirty-two teenagers in Cluj-Napoca and Harghita counties. Participants completed a questionnaire with 40 items including gamblers anonymous twenty questions. The sample included teenagers aged 11–19 years; 65.57% were male and 34.43% were female. The subjects were divided into three groups: non-gambling/recreational gambling or occasional gambling (0–1 positive ans ...
This study determined the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oral mucosa cells from 121 patients with different types of oral mucosal lesions (13 squamous cell carcinomas, 59 potentially malignant lesions, 49 benign erosive ulcerative lesions) and from 90 control subjects. HPV DNA was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction, and genotype was determined by DNA sequencing. HPV prevalence was 61.5% in carcinomas, 27.1% in potentially malignant lesions, 26.5% in erosive ulcerative le ...
BACKGROUND The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the development and maintenance of alcohol drinking; however, the exact mechanisms by which DA regulates human alcohol consumption are unclear. This study assessed the distinct effects of alcohol-related cues and alcohol administration on striatal DA release in healthy humans. METHODS Subjects underwent 3 PET scans with [(11)C]raclopride (RAC). Subjects were informed that they would receive either an IV Ringer's lactate infusion o ...
The cellulase activity in cell-free broths from the thermophilic, ethanol-producing anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is examined on both dilute-acid-pretreated mixed hardwood (90% maple, 10% birch) and Avicel. Experiments were conducted in vitro in order to distinguish properties of the cellulase from properties of the organism and to evaluate the effectiveness of C. thermocellum cellulase in the hydrolysis of a naturally occurring, lignin-containing substrate. The results obtained e ...
BACKGROUND The aetiology of Africa's easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies. METHODS Across Africa we assessed associations between a country's oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean natio ...
High Alcohol Withdrawal (HAW) and Low Alcohol Withdrawal (LAW) mice were selectively bred from a foundation population of C57BL6/J (B6) x DBA/2J (D2) F2 intercross progeny for display of intense or mild handling-induced withdrawal convulsions, respectively, following a single injection of a hypnotic dose of ethanol (alcohol; 4 g/kg). The HAW line had significantly greater alcohol withdrawal severity scores compared to the LAW line after only a single generation of selection; the magnitude of the ...
This study used an immunohistochemical technique to examine the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in 82 specimens of OSCC, 116 specimens of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), and 21 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM). The cytoplasmic and nuclear hTERT staining intensity (SI; 0, no staining; 1, weak; 2, moderate; 3, strong), labeling indices (LIs, defined as the percentage of positive cells in total cells), and labeling scores (LSs, defined as LI x SI) in OSCC, ...
Impotence is the most serious complication of priapism. In order to study its incidence and risk factors, the final outcomes of 124 cases of priapism in previously potent patients were analyzed and correlated with the duration of symptoms, age of the patients, aetiology and modality of treatment. Thirty-nine per cent of the patients became impotent. The duration of symptoms before treatment correlated markedly with the risk of impotence, in that 92% of those whose priapism had lasted less than 2 ...
Glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) oxidoreductase had been proved two key enzymes for 1,3-PD production by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Fed-batch fermentations of the recombinant K. pneumoniae strains, over-expressing the two enzymes individually, were carried out under micro-aerobic conditions, and the behaviors of the recombinants were investigated. Results showed that over-expression of 1,3-PD oxidoreductase did not affect the concentration of 1,3-PD. However, it enhanced the ...
The playing of drinking games, the quantity-frequency of alcohol consumption, and various problems related to drinking were assessed among a national sample of 3,830 alcohol consuming students from 58 American colleges and universities during the 1990-1991 academic year. Among Light-Moderate drinkers, a significantly higher proportion of students who had played a drinking game experienced 15 of 17 drinking-related problems. On the other hand, among Heavy drinkers there was little difference betw ...
The aim of this study was to determine the independent contribution of previously reported risk factors for adult overweight and obesity. A cross-sectional (n=537) and a longitudinal (n=283; 6-year follow-up period) analysis was performed for nine risk factors for overweight and obesity assessed in adult participants (aged 18-64 years) of the Quebec Family Study (QFS). The main outcome measure was overweight/obesity, defined as a BMI>or=25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analysis adjusted fo ...
BACKGROUND Intimate partner violence (IPV) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) are global health concerns, but their interaction is undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between IPV and TOP. METHODS AND FINDINGS A systematic review based on a search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Ovid Maternity and Infant Care from each database's inception to 21 September 2013 for peer-reviewed articles of any design and language found 74 studies regarding wome ...
The influence of different agitation speeds on alcoholic fermentation by free and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a co-culture with free cells of Aspergillus awamori was investigated. Starch hydrolysis and glucose, glucoamylase and alpha-amylase accumulation in the fermentation medium was affected by agitation speed. Maximum amounts of the enzymes were obtained at 150-200 rpm after 72 h where, maximum growth and glucose accumulations were noticed at 200-300 rpm. Alcohol producti ...
[reaction: see text] A lipophilic alpha-keto amide, inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, was synthesized using a lipidic 2-amino alcohol as backbone. The chiral key intermediate 2-(tert-butyloxycarbonylamino)-D-undecen-5-ol was synthesized starting from D-glutamic acid. The inhibitor formed a stable monomolecular film at the air/water interface as shown by a force/area curve. Inhibition studies using the monomolecular film technique with mixed films of 1,2-dicaprin containing variable proportions of ...
Osteoporosis is a growing health problem in women and in men. This cross-sectional study examined the association of anthropometric, lifestyle, and hormonal factors with bone mineral density (BMD) in 152 healthy Korean middle-aged men. Smoking habits and alcohol consumption were assessed by interview. Serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum growth hormone (GH) levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay. GH stimulation t ...
AIMS To examine the degree of involvement of concomitant drugs of misuse and other previously identified behavioural risk factors in acute accidental opiate-related poisoning fatalities in Sheffield, 1997-2000. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of coroners' records. SETTING Sheffield, UK. PARTICIPANTS All those who died from an acute accidental opiate-related poisoning in Sheffield between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2000. MEASUREMENTS Coronial data were collated under the headings: demog ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a fear appeal message on college students' drinking behavior using the extended parallel process model. METHOD A survey was administered to a random sample of undergraduates (n=224) in 38 national fraternal organizations. RESULTS Both perceived efficacy and perceived threat were significantly correlated with drinking behavior. There was a significant difference both in drinking behavior and attendance at alcohol-free events between those who heard and thos ...
Non-viral gene delivery has been well recognised as a potential way to address the main safety limitations of viral gene carriers. A new redox-responsive PEI derivative was designed, synthesized and evaluated for non-viral delivery applications of GFP DNA. Glycol chitosan was covalently attached to highly branched LMW PEI via bio-cleavable disulfide bonds to synthesize a new redox-responsive gene carrier (GCS-ss-PEI). Results showed the enhanced buffering capacity of GCS-ss-PEI, 43.1%, compared ...
BACKGROUND Ever since Gay-Lussac's time, the alcoholic strength by volume (% vol) has been determined by using densimetric measurements. The typical reference procedure involves distillation followed by pycnometry, which is comparably labour-intensive and therefore expensive. At present, infrared (IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate regression is widely applied as a screening procedure, which allows one to determine alcoholic strength in less than 2 min without any sample preparati ...
The actions of alcohols and anesthetics on ion channels are poorly understood. Controversy continues about whether bilayer restructuring is relevant to the modulatory effects of these surface active agents (SAAs). Some voltage-gated K channels (Kv), but not KvAP, have putative low affinity alcohol-binding sites, and because KvAP structures have been determined in bilayers, KvAP could offer insights into the contribution of bilayer mechanics to SAA actions. We monitored KvAP unitary conductance a ...
A review of studies on the relationship between alcohol and work injuries revealed that the evidence is contradictory and that many of the studies contain methodological flaws. The present study aimed to determine whether there are relationships between problem drinking and high alcohol consumption and outcomes such as work injuries and related absences. The sample consisted of 833 employees at an industrial worksite. Problem drinking was measured by the Mortimer-Filkins test, while alcohol cons ...
Spices and herbs possess antioxidant activity and can be applied for preservation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an important spice; its dried seeds have wide application in food and beverages as a flavoring additive as well as in medicines. Crude extracts of fenugreek were prepared by soxhelt extraction method with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected for t ...
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE Myelophil, an ethanol extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been used for patients with chronic fatigue-associated disorders in traditional Oriental clinics. AIM OF THE STUDY This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of Myelophil using a restraint stress-induced liver injury model and to explore the mechanisms underlying these effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Distilled water or Myelophil (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 200 mg/kg) was orally admini ...
Preventive intervention effects on adolescent alcohol misuse may differ based on genotypes in gene-by-intervention (G x I) interactions, and these G x I interactions may vary as a function of age. The current study uses a novel statistical method, time-varying effect modeling (TVEM), to test an age-varying interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the GABRA2 gene (rs279845) and a preventive intervention in predicting alcohol misuse in a longitudinal study of adolescents (ages 11– ...
To investigate a possible role of free radical production by xanthine oxidase in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, chow-fed rats were given ethanol (5 g/kg) and placed at 32 degrees C for 6 h, which resulted in increased hepatic malondialdehyde levels. Pretreatment with allopurinol in amounts that effectively inhibited xanthine metabolism also significantly decreased ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation, suggesting participation of free radicals produced by xanthine o ...
BACKGROUND Borna disease virus (BDV) is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bornaviridae. Borna disease virus is a neurotropic virus that causes changes in mood, behaviour and cognition. BDV causes persistent infection of the central nervous system. Immune changes lead to activation of infection. Alcohol and drug dependence are associated with immune impairment. METHODS We examined the seropositivity of BDV circulating immunocomplexes (CIC) in patients with alcohol and drug dependence and hea ...
BACKGROUND Driving is a common part of modern society, but its potential effects on health are not well understood. PURPOSE The present cross-sectional study (n = 37,570) examined the associations of driving time with a series of health behaviors and outcomes in a large population sample of middle-aged and older adults using data from the Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor Study conducted in New South Wales, Australia, in 2010. METHODS Multiple logistic regression was used in 2013 to ...
AIMS Our purpose is to conduct a meta-analysis of all published studies comparing alcohol septal ablation (ASA) and myectomy (MM) for drug refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Alcohol septal ablation is a less invasive alternative to MM for relief of symptoms in patients with drug refractory HOCM. METHODS AND RESULTS An extensive search of PubMed identified five non-randomized studies comparing ASA and MM. Of 351 patients studied, 183 underwent ASA and 168 underwent MM. P ...