Sodium Chloride (Total 544317 Papers Found)

Rat liver was homogenized in isotonic buffer, fractionated by differential centrifugation, and then subfractionated by equilibrium sedimentation in Nycodenz gradients. Fractions were assayed for both Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn-SOD by exploiting the cyanide sensitivity of the former activity and by the use of specific antibodies. As expected, the cytosol and lysosomal fractions contained Cu,Zn-SOD; while the mitochondrial matrix contained Mn-SOD. In mitochondria, Cu,Zn-SOD was found ...
Three Gram-negative, non-motile, non-pigmented, oxidase-positive coccobacilli capable of growth at temperatures from -10 to 30 degrees C and salinities of 0 to 1.7 M NaCl were isolated from Siberian permafrost and characterized. Both 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequencing studies placed the isolates in the Gammaproteobacteria within the genus Psychrobacter. However, with higher bootstrap values and reproducible tree topologies, gyrB represented a more reliable phylogenetic marker for the taxonomy of ...
The glycosylation profile of therapeutic antibodies is routinely analyzed throughout development to monitor the impact of process parameters and to ensure consistency, efficacy, and safety for clinical and commercial batches of therapeutic products. In this study, unusually high levels of the mannose-5 (Man5) glycoform were observed during the early development of a therapeutic antibody produced from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, model cell line A. Follow up studies indicated that the ...
Removal of aromatic compounds from alkaline and/or saline industrial wastewater is an environmental concern for industry. In addition, aromatics may be accumulating in soda lakes, unique natural systems, where the fate and toxicity of these contaminants is unknown. To determine the feasibility of aromatic compound biodegradation in saline and alkaline conditions, the effect of pH and salinity on the biodegradation of phenol as a model aromatic waste compound by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Hal ...
1. The shape parameters of glass microcapillaries for making ion specific microelectrodes were studied. It was found, that the greater the angle set by the walls, the more advantageous is the shape for filling the microelectrode. The time response of the precisely prepared microelectrode does not exceed severall msec. 2. The preparation of the double-barrel ion specific microelectrodes is described. One barrel was filled with organic ion exchanger and the other with NaCl solution (reference chan ...
PURPOSE To clarify the mechanism mediating the effect of hyperthyroidism on cardiac function during the second month of life in rats. METHODS Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to a control or to a triiodothyronine (T3)-treated group. Treatment of each group was started on the third day after birth. Control rats (Eut) received 0.9 NaCl [0.1 ml/100 g body weight (BW)] every second day during 60 days and T3-treated rats (Hyper) received subcutaneous (SC) T3 injections every sec ...
A moderately halophilic, slightly acidophilic, aerobic bacterium, designated strain YTM-1(T), was isolated from the body surface of Malacocottus gibber. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, short rods or cocci, approximately 0.9-1.1 µm long and 1.0-1.8 µm wide. Strain YTM-1(T) was able to grow with 1-30% NaCl (optimum, 7.5-10%, w/v), at 4-30 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and at pH 3.8-9.5 (optimum, pH 5.0-5.5). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strain YTM-1(T ...
BACKGROUND Surgery of the knee can be very painful and sufficient postoperative pain treatment is often problematic. To optimize postoperative analgesia, application of local analgesics has been suggested. In the present study it was investigated whether intra-articular administration of ketamine reduces the level of pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 68 patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery were randomized into 4 groups. At the end of surgery the fol ...
After injection of 3H-taurine into eyeballs of frogs and maintenance for 3 h in darkness by a gentle shaking, an almost homogenous fraction of rod outer segments (ROS) was prepared. About a 22% decrease in tonicity caused by reducing NaCl in isotonic 225 mOsm normal solution caused a rapid increase in the rate coefficient of efflux of 3H-taurine from the ROS fraction. The peak level of increased efflux rate coefficient was 7-times higher than the basal isotonic level. This indicates that taurine ...
Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processe ...
Sometimes EDTA blood of erythrocyte agglutination cannot be well resolved by incubation at 37 degrees C. In this case report, however, such a specimen was detected from a lymphoma patient at room temperature by using RBC-O and S-MCV parameters of the SYSMEX XE-2100 hematology analyzer. The specimen was diluted with 0.9% NaCL solution at 1:1 before measurement. HCT, MCV, and MCHC, corrected by RBC-O, HGB and S-MCV, were all in their normal ranges. This case indicates that RBC-O and S-MCV paramete ...
An epidemiological survey on goiter was conducted in Buenos Aires, on 3882 schoolchildren, a randomized sample of 160,026 children of public schools, before establishing prophylactic measures in 1968. With an estimated error of 5% the result was 14.8% of goiter prevalence. This figure qualified Buenos Aires as an endemic area and was, therefore, included in the National Programme to Combat Endemic Goiter, through iodized salt (proportion 1:30,000 of salt). Schools were qualified according to the ...
Muscular exercise is accompanied by evident and perfectly matched cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments to avoid changes in arterial blood gases. The mechanisms responsible for this perfect regulation have not yet been defined. Our previous experimental investigations have shown that a consistent rate of cardiorespiratory reflex responses to exercise is caused by chemosensitive muscular receptors activation. The 2 different types of classical muscular exercise (rhythmic and isometric exerci ...
The transport of thiamine across the intestine has been characterized in rats but has not been adequately studied in humans. To determine the kinetics of thiamine intestinal transport directly in humans, mucosal tissues were obtained during routine endoscopy from normal-appearing sites at the second portion of the duodenum. With 3H-dextran as the marker of adherent volume, the uptake of 14C-thiamine hydrochloride by the excised mucosa was measured in vitro. By this method thiamine uptake was lin ...
The medullary thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop (mTAL) is crucial for urine-concentrating ability of the kidney. It is water tight and able to dilute the luminal fluid by active transcellular NaCl transport, fueling the counter current mechanism by increasing interstitial osmolality. While chloride is exclusively transported transcellularly, approx. 50% of sodium transport occurs via the paracellular route, driven by the lumen-positive transepithelial potential. Antidiuretic hormone (AVP) i ...
The effects of high pressure processing (HPP; 600MPa for 3min at 8°C) on the quality and shelf life of reduced sodium naturally-cured wieners was studied. HPP did not negatively impact processing characteristics and assisted in extending shelf life of all wiener treatments up to a 12week storage period. At week 8, HPP wieners received higher acceptability scores, indicating HPP can effectively extend the sensory quality of products, including sodium reduced formulations containing natural forms ...
UNLABELLED Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fi ...
BACKGROUND The most commonly preferred treatment method for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease is surgery. Peroperative and postoperative hemorrhages may develop frequently because of the increased vascularity of the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adrenalin, a potent vasoconstrictor agent, on pilonidal sinus operations in comparison to a control group. METHODS A prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical study was designed and 51 patients with symptomatic ...
• Background: The objective of this study was to establish DNA-based HLA-DR postmortem tissue typing techniques in order to improve the quality and quanity of fully HLA-typed corneas for prospective allografting. •Methods: Four hundred and thirty-seven cornea donors were investigated. DNA was derived from cultivated retinal pigment epithelial cells by spin column purification or a salting out technique, and from scleral tissue by a very simple boiling method. Donors were typed by hybridizati ...
Six dogs were administered third ventricular infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (292 mosmol/l) alone or artificial CSF to which neither NaCl, sucrose, glucose, or urea was added to yield a final osmolar concentration of 500 mosmol/l. The volume of water drunk during 45 min of infusion was measured and blood was sampled for determination of plasma vasopressin concentration at 15-min intervals. Artificial CSF made hypertonic by addition of NaCl or sucrose stimulated water intakes of ...
The extent of activation of rat submandibular gland cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) was determined in vitro using dispersed cells to assess the involvement of this enzyme in submandibular mucin secretion. cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation, as determined by activity ratio method, was markedly increased following beta-adrenergic receptor activation. 0.5 M NaCl was required in the homogenization buffer for stabilization of the hormonally activated cAMP-dependent protein kin ...
BACKGROUND The concept that food is medicine is being practiced in certain parts of the world, with positive outcomes on health of the population. We have such practice in Pakistan but it needs to be brought in line with the available scientific evidence. METHODS The study was conducted on 270 patients, visiting the Family Practice Center, the Aga Khan University, Karachi. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the demographic profile, and the use of folk remedies for medicinal use ...
When rats with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced potassium chloride deficiency are given sodium chloride there is simultaneously a partial correction of metabolic alkalosis and a marked reduction in urinary citrate excretion and renal citrate content. To examine DOCA's role in this phenomenon and to determine how sodium chloride alters renal metabolism, rats were made KC1 deficient using furosemide and a KC1-deficient diet. Renal citrate and ammonia metabolism were then studied after c ...
Rabbit kidneys were stored for 24 hr at 0 degree C after single passage arterial flush with 30 ml of cold isotonic 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) solution alone or saline to which was added 12, 30, or 60 mM desferrioxamine, 1 or 3 mM uric acid, or 100 mM mannitol. They were then subjected to in vitro biochemical assay for evidence of free radical damage immediately after storage. Results were compared to those obtained with fresh, unstored kidneys. Levels of Schiff base fluorescence, diene conjug ...
The detection of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers and the establishment of isolation precautions are of crucial importance to prevent the development of nosocomial infections due to MRSA. Previous studies have demonstrated that the use of enrichment broths increased the rate of MRSA isolation both in clinical samples and surveillance cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MRSA isolation results obtained by inoculation of surveillance cultures in enrich ...
BACKGROUND Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common endocrinological disorder of women in their reproductive age. Androgen metabolism is impaired in PCOS and, thus, CYP19 gene which is involved in this pathway can be a candidate gene. Previous studies have shown a relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CYP19 in hyperandrogenism and PCOS in some racial groups. OBJECTIVE This study ...
Kitagawa, T., Sakamoto, Y., Furumi, K., and Ogura, H. 1989. Novel enzyme immunoassays for specific detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and for general detection of various Fusarium species. Phytopathology 79:162-165. Competitive types of two novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays including nine other strains of Fusarium, showed little cross-reactivity. (ELISA) for Fusarium species were developed. Antiserum against a strain When cell fragments of F. oxysporum FS01 attached to the ...
Six halo-acidophilic archaeal strains were isolated from four commercial salt samples obtained from seawater in the Philippines, Indonesia (Bali) and Japan (Okinawa) on agar plates at pH 4.5. Cells of the six strains were pleomorphic, and stained Gram-negative. Two strains were pink-red pigmented, while four other strains were orange-pink pigmented. Strain MH1-16-3(T) was able to grow at 9-30% (w/v) NaCl [with optimum at 18% (w/v) NaCl], at pH 4.5-6.8 (optimum, pH 5.5) and at 20-50 °C (optimum, ...
After a frog tongue was adapted to 0.001 M quinine-HCl(Q-HCl), a change in the gustatory neural responses to salts was investigated. The initial phasic response to a variety of salt solutions such as 0.1 M NaCl, KCl, LiCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 was greatly potentiated as a result of the Q-HCl adaptation. A weaker enhancement of the response to salts was observed after the tongue was adapted to deionized water, compared with the control response to salts during Ringer adaptation. Therefore, the Q-HCl-i ...
This study examined o-nitrophenol removal from aqueous solutions by electrochemical oxidation employing a modified electrode. The modified electrode was produced by electrodepositing lead oxide onto a titanium substrate. Following electrochemical oxidation of o-nitrophenol-containing solutions, the remaining o-nitrophenol concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were determined. The optimum parameters were current density of 40 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.47, 60 min of electrolysis time, 4 g ...
A high-affinity binding site selective for naloxone and other 4,5-epoxymorphinans (lambda site) has been previously described in rat brain. Following homogenization of freshly dissected brain, the lambda sites convert from a high-affinity to a low-affinity state. When measured with [3H]naloxone, the decay is very rapid at 20 degrees C (t 1/2 less than 2 min), whereas it is progressively slowed at lower temperatures. Proteinase inhibitors, antoxidants, and sulfhydryl group-protecting agents faile ...
on a liquid diet containing either 9.86 (n = 9) or 0 (i = 9) mEq NaCl/daily portion for 2 wk. Labeled antibody was injected and the diets were reversed. After an additional 2 wk period, antibody labeled with a different radionuclide was injected and the animals were sacrificed. Fractional plasma flow distribution was then calculated for each dietary period. No change in flow to any cortical region could be detected. In six additional awake rats on identical dietary regimen, total plasma flow was ...
BACKGROUND Poly (hydroxy butyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer with good mechanical properties. This polymer could be a promising material for scaffolds if some features improve. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present work, new PHB/chitosan blend scaffolds were prepared as a three-dimensional substrate in cartilage tissue engineering. Chitosan in different weight percent was added to PHB and solved in trifluoroacetic acid. Statistical Taguchi method was employed in the des ...
The inhibition mechanism of sodium oleate (C17H33COONa) for pitting corrosion of aluminum alloy (AA) 2024 in 0.1 mol L NaCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). C17H33COONa showed good inhibition effect on uniform corrosion of AA2024 in 0.1 mol L NaCl solution by promoting surface passivity of aluminum alloy. ...
Among the calcium hydroxycarboxylates important for cheese quality, D-lactobionate [Ksp = (7.0 ± 0.3) × 10(-3) mol(3) L(-3)] and L-lactate [Ksp = (5.8 ± 0.2) × 10(-3) mol(3) L(-3)] were found more soluble than D-gluconate [Ksp = (7.1 ± 0.2) × 10(-4) mol(3) L(-3)], as indicated by the solubility products determined electrochemically for aqueous 1.0 M NaCl at 25.0 °C. Still, solubility of calcium L-lactate increases by 45% in the presence of 0.50 M sodium D-gluconate and by 37% in the prese ...
Hemoglobin (Hb) obtained from the hemolysate of normal subjects and diabetic patients was separated into HbA1a1, HbA1a2, HbA1b, HbA1c and HbA0 (major Hb) by Bio-Rex 70 cation exchange column chromatography. The glycosylated Hbs were further separated reproductively by cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 5.80 with 0-0.2 M NaCl linear gradient system. HbA1b and HbA1c were separated into two subfractions (HbA1b1 and HbA1b2) and three ...
Optical spectra have been taken in the Soret band (440-400 nm) under different oxygen partial pressures for hemoglobin (Hb) A0 at pH 7.0, 15 degrees C, 2-3 mM heme, 30 mM inositol hexaphosphate, 0.1 Hepes and 0.1 M NaCl. Application of the matrix method of singular value decomposition (SVD) to the difference spectra for different oxygen pressures shows the presence of at least two distinct optical transitions. From this result one concludes that the optical response to oxygen binding is nonlinea ...
This study aimed at assessing the potential impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in the average salt intake in the Brazilian population. A total of 32,900 participants of the first National Dietary Survey (NDS 2008-2009), age 10 years and older who provided information about food intake over two days were evaluated. The sodium reduction targets established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2010 and 2013 were used as the reference to determine the maximum content of s ...
The reactive thiol of the myosin head, SH-1, can be selectively labelled in glycerinated rabbit muscle fibres. This residue has been used as an attachment site for either fluorescent or spectroscopic probes which report on head movements and orientations in various functional states of muscle. We have specifically modified SH-1in vitro, using purified rabbit myosin and conditions similar to those employed in the labelling of muscle fibres (low ionic strength [40mM NaCl] at 4°C), with stoichiome ...
Binding of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) to specific receptors on membranes isolated from GH4C1 pituitary cells was inhibited by monovalent cations and guanyl nucleotides. NaCl and LiCl inhibited TRH binding by 70%, with half-maximal inhibition at 30 mM; RbCl and KCl inhibited only 10% at concentrations up to 150 mM. NaCl decreased both the apparent number and the affinity of TRH receptors and increased the rate of dissociation of TRH from both membrane and Triton X-100-solubilized recepto ...
The patch-clamp technique was used to resolve currents through individual Na-selective ion channels in the apical membrane of the rat cortical collecting tubule. The channels had a single unit conductance of 5 pS under control conditions (cell-attached patches, room temperature, 140 mM NaCl in the pipette). They appeared to be highly selective for Na, as K conduction through them was not measurable in inside-out patches. The channels underwent spontaneous transitions between open and closed stat ...
Recent studies have shown that, not only in hypertensive animals but even in normotensive rats, dietary salt (sodium chloride) produces a dose-related increase in the left ventricular and renal mass. In the present study the effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril and the thiazide-type diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide, on the development of the salt-induced left ventricular and kidney hypertrophy were examined in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto and Wistar rats. A high inta ...
Environmental factors of physiological relevance such as pH, calcium, ionic strength, and temperature can affect the state of self-aggregation of surfactant protein A (SP-A). We have studied the secondary structure of different SP-A aggregates and analyzed their fluorescence characteristics. (a) We found that self-aggregation of SP-A can be Ca(2+)-dependent. The concentration of Ca(2+) needed for half-maximal self-association (K(a)(Ca)()2+) depended on the presence of salts. Thus, at low ionic s ...
AIM To conduct a retrospective study to determine the risk factors for development of metaplastic gastritis in Korean population. METHODS The database of 113449 subjects who underwent a gastroscopy for the purpose of a regular check-up at center for health promotion, Samsung medical center during 5 years was collected and retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 5847 subjects who had endoscopically diagnosed as a metaplastic gastritis or 10076 normal as well as answered to questionnaire were incl ...
The effects of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists and antagonists on ion transport and bioelectric properties of excised canine trachea, main-stem bronchi, and subsegmental bronchi were studied. Acetylcholine (ACh) induced in bronchi a dose-dependent reduction in net Na+ absorption, maximal (30%) at 10(-5) M, that reflected a raised Na+ flux from submucosa to mucosa. Because conductance (G) did not change we speculate that the increased flow in the "passive" direction represents the induction o ...
Salinity is one of the most wide spread abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productivity, with an impact on more than 800 million hectares worldwide. A promising solution for the recovery of saline soils encompasses the use of actinorhizal plants, a group of perennial dicotyledonous angiosperms including species highly resilient to extreme environmental conditions. These plants are able to establish root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. In this review, we ...